>From alex Mon Sep 11 17:59:02 MSD 1995

                         POWER FROM POTENTIAL

                        Theory and experiments


                        by Alexander V. Frolov

             P.O.Box 37, St.-Petersburg, 193024, Russia

                      email [email protected]




        Present article classify extraction of excess power by means of

electric discharge ( arc ) as special case for application of electric

potential field for creation of power.




        Energy is the possibility to make the work.

        Power is process of work per unit of time.

        Potential is the value of energy that can be used to make the work.




        It is clear that any experimental data can be interpretated by

different conceptions. N. Tesla's research work for wireless power transmission

from the point of view of energetics is transformation of high-voltage and

high-frequency electric field energy in output power to make useful work

in load. The direction of some Tesla's patent research [1] was derivation

of excess power from electric discharges.


        In the end of 1960s Prof. Alexander V. Chernetsky and Uri A. Galkin,

Institute of Electrical Engineering, Moscow, made experiments for strong arc

current and observed so call "self-generating discharge". Figure 1 show

the voltage U and current I for this special case of arc.

                                 _ _

                              /       \   current I

                           /\          \

                         /   \          \

                    _ /        \          \   _   _

                ----------------\--------------------------- t

                                 \       --

                                  \    /     \

                                   \ _/ voltage U


                            Figure 1


        Note that for part of cycle the current is increasing when voltage

is decreasing.

                       dI/dt>0 for dU/dt<0             F.1


Negative resistance have place


                            R = U/I                    F.2


This fact means that in process for self-generating discharge, by Chernetsky,

the power

                            P = I U                    F.3


inflow into system from outside.

        Detailed description for Chernetsky's experiments published in

English in [2] and [3]. Power output was up to 500 Kwatts and fact for

reverse current from experimental system into electric station was detected.


Swiss M-L converter described in [4] and [5] use high potential source like

Wimshurst machine that is connected to "spark gap cylinders". It is capacitor that have spires between cylinders to create "slow electrical arc" between inner and outside cylinders.


                       SCHEMES FOR EXPERIMENTS


        Let us find what is general for all technologies above.

Chernetsky's scheme published in magazine Energy and Ecology'86 in Russian, was the next:


            I           L1             I

            I                          I

            I________/\  /\  /\  ______I

                       \/  \/  \/


            ___ /\   /\  /\  /\  /\  ___

            I      \/  \/  \/  \/  \/  I

            I            L2            I

            I                          I

          __I__                       _I_

          _____  C1                  I   I

            I                        I   I  R1

            I         arc gap        I___I

            I__________     ___________I

                   I           I

                   I      Sw1  I

                   I____/ _____I


                         Figure 2


A.V. Chernetsky used 5 lampes for 220 AC in series as load. So, transformer was like 220/1000 Volt, 50 Hz. The discharge gap had carbonic electrodes.

When switch Sw1 is open the power in load is increasing.

        I used hand-made transformer 28/2800 VAC for 5 KHz input, high-voltage lamp as load and metal electrodes. The gap was 2-3 mm. Voltmeter and ammeter are checking input power.

        You can easy find in this experiment that output power is increasing when arc have place but power in primary circuit is decreasing.

        You can check that Conservation Law is right: when Sw1 is closed and

Current of conductivity have place, the connection of load lead to increase consumption power.

        So, "plasma element" in circuit allows extract additional power from outside of system but not from primary source.


        Now let us consider other simple experiment that is close connected with scheme above. More detailed description of it published in [6].

        Take the metal piece, screw-driver, for example, and create arc between end of it and one wire of high-voltage transformer.


               I                I

               I       L1       I

               I_    /\   /\  __I

                  \/    \/  \/                                 _____________

                ================                ______________[             \

                __/\  /\  /\  ____________     I   metal      [ insulator   /

                    \/  \/  \/             arc I______________[             \

                     L2                                       [_____________/


                               Figure 3


        Check the power input and be sure that power process of arc is free from input source. No any power consumption increase when powerful arc have place even for hot screw-driver.

        Next version of experiment is possible if you have single-polarity potential of the end of wire for pulsed current transformer. For positive potential on wire the arc is more powerful than for other wire. This difference is not demonstrated for AC transformer. Both ends of AC coil can

be used for creation of arc.

        This difference shows the nature for such sort free power arc.

Positive potential of wire make work for attraction of free electrons from metal of screw-driver. It is not the current of conductivity but displacement current.

        Application of effect above into useful form can be made like known

Avramenko-Zaev-Lisin experiments [7]. The scheme is


                       I    L1        I               VD1

                       I  /\  /\  /\  I             ____|/|_____

                        \/  \/  \/  \/             I    |\|     I

                      ==================         A I           _I_

                       _/\   /\  /\  /\____________I          I   I

                          \/   \/  \/              I          I   I  R

                              L2                   I          I_ _I




                             Figure 4


        The alternating potential in point A is sufficient for conductivity current in close circuit VD1-VD2-R.This diode pair have the name as Avramenko's plug. I used for this scheme 30 VAC hand-made generator for L1, frequency 10 KHz, transformer 30/3000 Volts and diodes for 1.5 KV pressure.

The ammeter can be used as load R. Note that ammeter in wire between transformer and point A don't show any current.




        There are experimentally proved possibility to create power in load

by means of potential only. By similar approach mechanical motion, rotation

and propulsion force can be created.

        So, free energetics can be formulated as transformation of potential

in power or Energy-Power Transformation. Since the power is process, the

question is the parameters of process only.


Alexander V. Frolov




1. Speculations in Science and Technology, Vol.13, Number 4, 1990,

p.249, Donald Kelly, A Review of the Free-Energy Scenario.

2. EFE-Denver Report, p.94-B22-02, Vacuum Energy Developments, Andrew

Michrowski, Published by Planetary Association for Clean Energy, Inc.,

100 Bronson Av., Suite 1001, Ottawa, Ontario K1R 6G8, Canada. Order by

email [email protected]

3. A.V. Chernetsky, About physical nature for bioenergy, Moscow, 1989,

in Russian.

4. Newsletter of Space Energy Association, Vol.2 p.3 Published by SEA/US,

P.O.Box 11422, Clearwater, FL 34616, USA.

5. Dr. Patrick G. Bailey, Proceeding of Denver'94 Conference, "Other

voices: A Summary of Research not Present. Re: Paul Baumann's Methernitha

Free-Energy Machine. Institute for New Energy email address: [email protected].

6. The single-wire electric power transmission, A.V. Frolov, published

by New Energy News, December 1994, p.13-14. P.O.Box 58639, Salt Lake City,

UT 84158-8639, USA. Email [email protected].

7. N.E.Zaev, S.V.Avramenko, V.N.Lisin, "The measuring of Conduction Current

that is stimulated by Polarization current, Journal of Russian Physical

Society, No.2'1991, in Russian.





 Alexander V. Frolov   email: [email protected]

 P. O. Box 37,  St.-Petersburg,  193024,  Russia